Posted on

Which Hops Have the Most Geraniol?

Geraniol Hops

Geraniol has a waxy, sweet rose odour and is found in many but not all hops. It’s found in Cascade, Citra, Centennial, Chinook, Pacific Hallertau, Southern Cross, Motueka, Aurora, and Styrian Golding hops. It isn’t found in UK Challenger, U. S. Challenger, Alsace Strisselspalt, Spalt Select, Sterling, Czech Saaz, Millennium, or German Magnum.

It’s also a primary component of the essential oils of roses, palmarosa and citronella, and is found in small quantities in geranium and lemon. It has a rose-like, floral, and citrus fruit aroma and flavor. Geraniol is also found in coriander, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose, blueberry, and blackberry. It is commonly used in perfumes and flavours such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry.

Geraniol attracts bees but repels of mosquitoes and is used in many DEET-free repellent preparations. Geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honeybees to mark nectar-bearing flowers and locate the entrances to their hives.

It has low solubility in water, but it is soluble in common organic solvents. When oxidized, geraniol becomes geranial or citral. Geraniol is a byproduct of the metabolism of sorbate and, thus, is a very unpleasant contaminant of wine if bacteria are allowed to grow in it.

Geraniol is a moderate skin irritant and can cause allergies. Exposed to air, its oxidation products are more irritant and allergenic.

Which hops have the most geraniol? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their geraniol content as a percentage of the total oil content.

VarietyGeraniol %
Aroma Wheel PlacementDescription
Brewers Gold1.34Fruity, SpicySpicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Brewers Gold (GR)1.16Fruity, SpicyBlack currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Centennial1.14Citrus, FloralMedium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Styrian Aurora0.85Floral, PineIntense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Cluster0.83Floral, SpicyStrong floral and spicy characteristics
Simcoe0.66Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, PineUnique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Crystal0.59SpicyMild, spicy and floral
Chinook0.59Citrus, Spicy, PineDistinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Mosaic0.59Citrus, Floral, GrassyA complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Bravo0.5Fruity, FloralPleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Warrior0.48Citrus, Herbal, PineMild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Galena0.41Citrus, Stone Fruit, SpicySpicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Tahoma0.35Citrus, Cedar, PinePredominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Equinox0.33Citrus, Herbal, Tropical FruitA pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Sorachi Ace0.31Citrus, Herbal, GrassyUnique lemon and dill characteristics
Summit0.3Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/EarthyDistinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Citra0.3Fruity, Citrus, Tropical FruitStrong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Mt. Rainier0.29Citrus, Floral, SpicyFloral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Brewers Delight0.28
Ahtanum0.27Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/EarthyFloral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Chelan0.27Citrus, FloralMild floral and citrus characteristics
Hallertau (GR)0.26Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Mt. Hood0.26Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, HerbalMild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Columbus0.26Citrus, SpicyPungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Palisade0.25Stone Fruit, Herbal, GrassyApricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Hallertau0.23Floral, Spicy, HerbalMild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Glacier0.23HerbalPleasant hop aroma
Perle0.22Floral, Spicy, HerbalSlightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Saaz0.22Spicy, Tobacco/EarthyMild spice and earth tones
Horizon0.22Floral, SpicyPleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Sterling0.21Citrus, SpicyHerbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Bullion0.21FruityStrong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Ultra0.21Floral, SpicyMild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Northern Brewer (GR)0.18Floral, HerbalMedium intense herbal and floral tones
Cascade0.18Fruity, Citrus, FloralMedium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Herkules (GR)0.16FloralSpicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Amarillo0.16Citrus, Floral, Tropical FruitFloral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
EKG (UK)0.15Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/EarthySmooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Tettnang0.15SpicyNoble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Northern Brewer0.15Tobacco/Earthy, PineMedium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Bitter Gold0.15No specific aroma characteristics
Magnum0.14No distinct aroma characteristics
Tettnang (GR)0.14Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, HerbalMild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
WGV (UK)0.13Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, HerbalFresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Millenium0.13Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, HerbalMild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Admiral (UK)0.12Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, HerbalPleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Willamette0.12Floral, SpicyMild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Fuggle0.11Fruity, Tobacco/EarthyMild wood and fruit characteristics
Styrian Celeia0.11FloralPleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Liberty0.1Citrus, SpicyMild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Golding0.09Floral, SpicyMild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Triplepearl0.09Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Vanguard0.08Floral, HerbalHerbal and floral tones
Nugget0.07Spicy, HerbalMild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Perle (GR)0.06Fruity, Floral, SpicyDelicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Yakima Gold0.06Mild and pleasant
Santiam0.05Floral, Spicy, HerbalSlightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics