Posted on

Which Hops Have the Most Geraniol?

Geraniol Hops

Geraniol has a waxy, sweet rose odour and is found in many but not all hops. It’s found in Cascade, Citra, Centennial, Chinook, Pacific Hallertau, Southern Cross, Motueka, Aurora, and Styrian Golding hops. It isn’t found in UK Challenger, U. S. Challenger, Alsace Strisselspalt, Spalt Select, Sterling, Czech Saaz, Millennium, or German Magnum.

It’s also a primary component of the essential oils of roses, palmarosa and citronella, and is found in small quantities in geranium and lemon. It has a rose-like, floral, and citrus fruit aroma and flavor. Geraniol is also found in coriander, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose, blueberry, and blackberry. It is commonly used in perfumes and flavours such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry.

Geraniol attracts bees but repels of mosquitoes and is used in many DEET-free repellent preparations. Geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honeybees to mark nectar-bearing flowers and locate the entrances to their hives.

It has low solubility in water, but it is soluble in common organic solvents. When oxidized, geraniol becomes geranial or citral. Geraniol is a byproduct of the metabolism of sorbate and, thus, is a very unpleasant contaminant of wine if bacteria are allowed to grow in it.

Geraniol is a moderate skin irritant and can cause allergies. Exposed to air, its oxidation products are more irritant and allergenic.

Which hops have the most geraniol? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their geraniol content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Geraniol %
Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Brewers Gold 1.34 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Brewers Gold (GR) 1.16 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Centennial 1.14 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Styrian Aurora 0.85 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Cluster 0.83 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Simcoe 0.66 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Crystal 0.59 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Chinook 0.59 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Mosaic 0.59 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Bravo 0.5 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Warrior 0.48 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Galena 0.41 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Tahoma 0.35 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Equinox 0.33 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Sorachi Ace 0.31 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Summit 0.3 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Citra 0.3 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Mt. Rainier 0.29 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Brewers Delight 0.28
Ahtanum 0.27 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Chelan 0.27 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 0.26 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Mt. Hood 0.26 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Columbus 0.26 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Palisade 0.25 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Hallertau 0.23 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Glacier 0.23 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Perle 0.22 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Saaz 0.22 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Horizon 0.22 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Sterling 0.21 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Bullion 0.21 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Ultra 0.21 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Newport 0.2 Mild
Northern Brewer (GR) 0.18 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Cascade 0.18 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Herkules (GR) 0.16 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Amarillo 0.16 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
EKG (UK) 0.15 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Tettnang 0.15 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Northern Brewer 0.15 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Bitter Gold 0.15 No specific aroma characteristics
Magnum 0.14 No distinct aroma characteristics
Tettnang (GR) 0.14 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
WGV (UK) 0.13 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Millenium 0.13 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Admiral (UK) 0.12 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Willamette 0.12 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Fuggle 0.11 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Styrian Celeia 0.11 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Liberty 0.1 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Golding 0.09 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Triplepearl 0.09 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Vanguard 0.08 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Nugget 0.07 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Perle (GR) 0.06 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Yakima Gold 0.06 Mild and pleasant
Santiam 0.05 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Posted on

Which Hops have the Most Humulene?

Humulene Hops

Humulene, also known as α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is one of the components of the essential oil from the flowering cone of the hops plant. It’s a naturally occurring terpene, first found in hops (Humulus lulupus) from which it derives its name. It’s an isomer of β-caryophyllene, and the two are often found together as a mixture in many aromatic plants including pine trees, orange trees, marsh elders, tobacco, and sunflower plants. Humulene is also found in sage, basil, cloves, Japanese spicebush, ginseng, mint, ginger, Vietnamese coriander and cannabis.

The concentration of humulene varies among different varieties of hops but can be up to 40% of the essential oil. Humulene and its reaction products in the brewing process of beer gives many beers their earthy, woody, piney, “hoppy” aroma. It has been said that noble hop varieties have been found to have higher levels of humulene, while other bitter hop varieties contain low levels.

The ratio of humulene to caryophyllene varies from one hop variety to another, but many brewers consider a good aroma to be one that has a ratio of greater than 3:1. Such hops tend to be floral, herbal, and spicy in character.

Some varieties, such as Hallertauer Mittelfrüh and U.K. Kent Golding, may contain 30% or more of their essential oils in humulene, but, because humulene is highly volatile and hydrophobic, only trace quantities of it may actually reach the final beer. Oxidation products of humulene, on the other hand, especially humulene mono-and di-epoxides, can impart significant amounts of aroma to beer. Humulene epoxide III is one of the most potent flavor compounds in Hallertauer Mittelfrüh, for instance, a variety that is high in humulene but relatively low in total oils.

Allowing hops that are high in humulene to age in bales for several weeks prior to pelletizing will result in greater amounts of humulene epoxides, as well as other hop oil oxidation products, which some brewers believe can significantly increase the hops’s aroma potential.

Which hops have the most humulene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their humulene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Humulene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Vanguard 51.1 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Admiral (UK) 46.87 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
EKG (UK) 45.95 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Perle (GR) 40.38 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
WGV (UK) 40.36 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Golding 39.84 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Liberty 37.86 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Fuggle 36.37 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 36.18 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Perle 35.28 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Tettnang 33.59 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Willamette 33.03 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Northern Brewer (GR) 32.41 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Hallertau 32.39 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Styrian Celeia 32.13 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Magnum 31.21 No distinct aroma characteristics
Brewers Gold (GR) 30.48 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Northern Brewer 29.44 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Glacier 29.08 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Saaz 28.18 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Tettnang (GR) 27.12 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Mt. Hood 26.8 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Crystal 26.58 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Santiam 25.81 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Herkules (GR) 25.62 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Styrian Aurora 24.16 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Sorachi Ace 22.62 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Yakima Gold 22.62 Mild and pleasant
Millenium 22.2 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Ahtanum 20.69 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Sterling 19.33 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Summit 19.21 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Equinox 19.07 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Bullion 18.84 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Cluster 18.82 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Nugget 18.8 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Chinook 18.35 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Mt. Rainier 17.92 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Amarillo 17.9 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Simcoe 17.42 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Newport 17.32 Mild
Horizon 16.36 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Warrior 16.03 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Brewers Gold 15.65 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Brewers Delight 15.22
Palisade 14.89 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Cascade 14.19 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Galena 13.53 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Bitter Gold 13.49 No specific aroma characteristics
Chelan 12.66 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Ultra 12.53 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Columbus 11.99 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Tahoma 11.68 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Centennial 10.68 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Mosaic 10.62 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Bravo 8.97 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Citra 8.73 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Triplepearl 7.2 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Posted on

Which Hops Have the Most Caryophyllene?

Caryophyllene Hops

Caryophyllene is a natural terpene that is a constituent of the essential oils of hops and other plants, especially cloves, cannabis and rosemary. Caryophyllene is one of the chemical compounds that contributes to the aroma of black pepper. Some say that caryophyllene has a woody, herbal, European aroma. It has anti-inflammatory properties.

Caryophyllene, like myrcene, is used often in the perfume industry to aid in aroma dispersion. It’s found in foods including ice cream, baked goods and beverages.

Which hops have the most caryophyllene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their caryophyllene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Caryophyllene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Vanguard 15.62 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
EKG (UK) 14.93 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Perle (GR) 14.67 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Brewers Gold (GR) 14.61 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Admiral (UK) 14.21 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Perle 14.03 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Fuggle 14.01 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Tettnang 13.48 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Northern Brewer 13.24 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Willamette 13.18 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Summit 12.85 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Styrian Celeia 12.82 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
WGV (UK) 12.54 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Mt. Hood 12.49 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Golding 12.37 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Northern Brewer (GR) 12.34 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Warrior 12.06 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Palisade 11.92 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Horizon 11.13 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Bullion 10.95 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Equinox 10.9 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Saaz 10.78 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Hallertau (GR) 10.37 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Chelan 10.09 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Ahtanum 10.05 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Magnum 9.98 No distinct aroma characteristics
Hallertau 9.64 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Brewers Gold 9.61 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Liberty 9.58 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Millenium 9.26 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Newport 9.24 Mild
Glacier 9.11 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Nugget 9.07 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Brewers Delight 8.8
Simcoe 8.72 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Bitter Gold 8.62 No specific aroma characteristics
Chinook 8.5 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Cluster 8.45 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Ultra 7.99 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Santiam 7.88 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Tettnang (GR) 7.74 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Mt. Rainier 7.66 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Sorachi Ace 7.63 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Columbus 7.58 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Yakima Gold 7.47 Mild and pleasant
Galena 7.44 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Crystal 7.34 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Styrian Aurora 7.27 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Herkules (GR) 7.14 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Sterling 6.66 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Bravo 6.62 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Amarillo 6.53 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Cascade 6.23 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Citra 5.58 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Centennial 5.23 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Mosaic 4.24 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Triplepearl 3.92 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Tahoma 3.79 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Posted on

Which Hops Have the Most Linalool?

Linalool Hops

β-linalool, aka linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, allo-ocimenol or linalool, is a terpene alcohol component of the essential oil of hops, and other flowers and spice plants. Over 200 species of plants produce linalool, mainly from the families Lamiaceae (mint and other herbs), Lauraceae (laurels, cinnamon, rosewood), and Rutaceae (citrus fruits), but also birch trees and other plants, from tropical to boreal climate zones, including fungi.

Linalool has a distinctive floral aroma reminiscent of rose as well as lavender and/or bergamot. It also has citrusy and woody notes. Linalool, from coriander oil and sweet orange has a smell described as sweet lavender with a touch of citrus; it is also found in tomato. Linalool found in the oils of rose, neroli and lavender, laurel and sweet basil has a more woody lavender smell.

Linalool is a potent odorant in hops and beer. As an alcohol, it is considered part of the oxygenated fraction of hop oils and consequently is more soluble in wort and beer than its counterpart myrcene. Linalool is found at low levels but it has an extremely low odor threshold for humans. This means it can be a very noticeable component in a beer’s aroma.

β-linalool has multiple commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). Linalool is used as a scent in 60% to 80% of perfumed hygiene products and cleaning agents including soaps, detergents, shampoos, and lotions, and is used in insecticides to attract insects. It is also used as a chemical intermediate. One common downstream product of linalool is vitamin E.

Which hops have the most linalool? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their linalool content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Linalool % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Ultra 1.21 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Horizon 1.1 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Liberty 1.06 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Nugget 1.02 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Styrian Aurora 1 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Crystal 0.9 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Santiam 0.87 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Mt. Hood 0.83 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Mt. Rainier 0.82 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Triplepearl 0.8 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Glacier 0.79 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Golding 0.79 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 0.79 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Styrian Celeia 0.79 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Fuggle 0.78 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy, Grassy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Citra 0.77 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Hallertau 0.77 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Tettnang 0.76 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Bullion 0.74 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Saaz 0.71 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Tahoma 0.71 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Willamette 0.71 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Mosaic 0.69 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Brewers Gold 0.68 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Centennial 0.67 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Sterling 0.66 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Amarillo 0.61 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Simcoe 0.61 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
EKG (UK) 0.56 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Equinox 0.56 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
WGV (UK) 0.56 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Millenium 0.55 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Bitter Gold 0.54 No specific aroma characteristics
Brewers Gold (GR) 0.52 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Tettnang (GR) 0.52 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Sorachi Ace 0.51 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Cascade 0.49 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Newport 0.49 Mild
Northern Brewer (GR) 0.49 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Northern Brewer 0.48 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Bravo 0.47 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Cluster 0.46 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Brewers Delight 0.45
Chinook 0.45 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Columbus 0.45 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Warrior 0.45 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Palisade 0.43 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Galena 0.42 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Perle 0.41 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Chelan 0.39 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Magnum 0.39 No distinct aroma characteristics
Ahtanum 0.36 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Summit 0.33 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Perle (GR) 0.32 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Yakima Gold 0.3 Mild and pleasant
Herkules (GR) 0.27 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Vanguard 0.2 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Admiral (UK) 0.17 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Posted on

Which Hops Have the Most Myrcene?

Myrcene Hops

Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is a significant component of the essential oil of hops, and other highly fragrant plants including mangoes, bay laurel leaves, cannabis, ylang-ylang, thyme, lemongrass, basil, parsley and cardamom.

Myrcene is the terpene most frequently found in cannabis and it is considered one of the ten primary terpenes. It’s often referred to as one of the most “earthy” smelling varieties of terpene, featuring musky notes likened to cloves. Some say that myrcene flavour and aroma is green, resinous and piney, others say floral, citrus and piney.

Myrcene is widely used in the perfume industry, although rarely as a fragrant compound in its own right; more commonly, it is used as an industrial precursor to various other terpenes including geraniol, menthol, citral and nerol.

Studies have shown that myrcene tends to encourage the notorious “couch-lock” induced by the sedative qualities of THC and a high concentration of Myrcene. At the same time, many myrcene strains are known for producing joyful and euphoric effects, in addition to an overall feeling of relaxation.

Which hops have the most myrcene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their myrcene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Myrcene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Citra 66.53 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Centennial 65.37 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Tahoma 64.23 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Bravo 62.37 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Mosaic 61.84 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Mt. Rainier 58.04 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Ultra 56.74 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Brewers Gold 56.44 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Cascade 56.33 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Triplepearl 55.89 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Ahtanum 54.11 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Columbus 53.2 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Bitter Gold 53.02 No specific aroma characteristics
Palisade 52.51 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Newport 52.21 Mild
Amarillo 52.14 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Nugget 51.15 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Sorachi Ace 50.49 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Simcoe 50.35 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Chelan 50.35 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Horizon 49.79 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Bullion 49.11 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Galena 47.45 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Brewers Delight 45.9
Warrior 44.77 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Crystal 44.67 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Millenium 44.55 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Herkules (GR) 44.25 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Glacier 43.95 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Cluster 43.69 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Mt. Hood 41.97 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Summit 41.41 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Magnum 41.24 No distinct aroma characteristics
Sterling 40.13 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Northern Brewer 39.86 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Yakima Gold 39.62 Mild and pleasant
Chinook 38.21 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Styrian Aurora 36.68 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Northern Brewer (GR) 35.47 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Equinox 34.09 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Perle 33.04 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Saaz 32.28 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Hallertau 30.9 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Liberty 29.94 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Tettnang 28.82 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Willamette 28.01 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Brewers Gold (GR) 26.55 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Perle (GR) 25.91 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Golding 25.89 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 24.93 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Santiam 24.59 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Fuggle 24.24 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
WGV (UK) 22.42 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Styrian Celeia 17.6 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
EKG (UK) 15.63 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Tettnang (GR) 11.8 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Admiral (UK) 4.8 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Vanguard 4.63 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Posted on

Chinook Hops

Chinook Hops

Chinook hops are a very distinctive dual-purpose hop used in Ales, commonly in IPA, for both bittering and flavor/aroma. 

Chinook hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Bouquet of pine and spice
  • Purpose: Bittering & Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 12%-14%
  • Beta Acids: 3%-4%
  • Substitutes: Galena, Eroica, Nugget, Bullion, Columbus, Northern Brewer, Target
  • Style Guide: Winter Ale, Pale Ale, India Pale Ale, Porter, Stout, Lager, Barley Wine, American Lager, American Ale

Here are some questions people often ask about Chinook hops:

What flavour do Chinook hops have? Chinook hops are mild to medium-heavy, spicy, piney, and grapefruity.

Which beers have chinook hops? Try the Mikkeller Single Hop Chinook IPA or BrewDog have a Chinook single hopped style in their 4 pack, BrewDog IPA is Dead Single Hop IPA 4 Pack (Chinook, Ella, Pioneer & Mandarina Bavaria).

What can you substitute Chinook hops with? Chinook hops can be substituted with Nugget hops, Columbus hops, Northern Brewer hops and U.K. Target hops.

Which hops can you combine Chinook with? Chinook hops are great on their own but they can also compliment Galaxy hops, Crystal hops, Ahtanum hops and maybe Cascade. They also go well combined with Simcoe and Centennial.

Can you use Chinook for dry hopping? Chinook is primarily used for its high alpha acid content as a bittering hop. These days, however, late additions and even dryhopping with Chinooks is becoming more popular. This hop can contribute herbal, piney, and smoky aromatic qualities to a beer.

 

Posted on

East Kent Golding Hops

Kent Golding Hops

EKG Hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Aromas of lavender, spice, honey, thyme, earthy flavors
  • Purpose: Aroma
  • Alpha Acid Composition: 5%-6%
  • Beta Acid Composition: 2%-3%
  • Origin: England
  • Substitutes: Whitbread Golding, Progress, Fuggle, First Gold
  • Style Guide: Pale Ale, Extra Special English Ale, English Dark Ale, English Light Ale, Belgian Ale, Christmas Ale

Here are some common questions people have about EKG hops.

Which beers have EKG hops? There aren’t many EKG single hopped beers around in Australia, we’ve seen there’s a Mikkeller Single Hop East Kent Golding IPA, so it could be a good idea for someone to release a beer single hopped with EKG.

Can you use Kent Goldings for bitterring? East Kent Golding is prized for its aroma, which makes it suitable for dry hopping, but many brewers use it for bittering as well. Like most of the English hop varieties, East Kent Golding is fairly earthy in flavor, and here that quality is combined with apricot and slight notes of spice

What can you subsitute Kent Goldings hops with? You can substitute EKG with Golding Progress, Whitbread Golding, Fuggle and First Gold hops.

What’s the difference between EKG goldings and goldings? They’re very similar hops, the difference is in name reflects where they’re grown. Goldings are a group of traditional and very popular English aroma hops grown prior to 1790, they’re also cultivated also in the USA. They are called East Kent Goldings if grown in East Kent, Kent Goldings if grown in mid-Kent, and Goldings if grown elsewhere in the U.K. There are many different named cultivars such as Amon’s Early Bird, Cobbs, Bramling, Canterbury, Petham Rodmersham and in Worcestershire – Mathon. They tend to have a smooth, sweet flavor. Most types of Goldings will work in place of another (Whitbread Golding Variety for East Kent Goldings, e.g.). Note that Styrian Goldings are not of this family, they rather are identical to Fuggles.

East Kent Goldings for sale.

Posted on

Centennial Hops

Centennial Hops

Centennial hops profile: Centennial is a much-celebrated hop in its versatility with its depth of bitterness. It’s used in ales and IPAs for its high alpha content and is floral in both flavour and aroma.

  • Alpha Acid Composition‎: ‎9.5%-11.5%
  • Beta Acid Composition‎: ‎3.5%-4.5%
  • Total Oil Composition‎: ‎1.5-2.5 mL/100
  • Beer styles: Ale, India pale ale
  • Similar hops: Cascade, Chinook, Tomahawk
  • Aroma: ‎Earthy, Citrus, Floral
  • Purpose: Dual-purpose
  • Origin: United States of America

Here is a question that is often asked about Centennial:

What do Centennial hops taste like? Centennial hops are sometimes called “super cascade” because they are similar in flavour profile. Centennial hops vs cascade: Centennial hops taste bitter because they have an elevated alpha acid content of 8 to 11%, compared to Cascade’s 4 to 6%, Centennial yields a more potent bitterness when used in similar quantities.

Are centennial hops good for bittering? This dual-use variety has substantial alpha-acid content as well as a nice aroma. Centennial is often used for bittering additions. It is complimentary to many American hop varieties when used in that role

Centennial hops substitutes: Centennial can be substituted with cascade, tomhawk or chinook.

Centennial hops beers? These beers are single hopped with centennial: Ballistic Centennial Single Hop IPA and Mikkeller Centennial Single Hop IPA.

Posted on

Saaz Hops

Saaz Hops

Saaz hops, also known as Czech Saaz, Saazer and Czech Saazer, have characteristics which are used in styles like Bohemian Pilsners (Bohemia is a region of Czechia). Saaz hops were named after the Czech city of Žatec (German: Saaz).

Saaz hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Noble, herbal character
  • Purpose: Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 2.5%-4.5%
  • Beta Acids: 4%-6%
  • Origin: Czechia
  • Substitutes: Saaz (US), Sterling, Lubelska-Pulawy, Moteuka, Centennial, Amarillo®, Motueka B Saaz
  • Style Guide: Lager, Pilsner

Here are some faqs people have about Saaz hops.

Where are Saaz hops grown? There are varieties grown in Czechia (Czech Republic), Belgium and New Zealand and a higher alpha acid variety of Saaz hops are now grown in the United States.

How do you pronounce Saaz? ‘Zots’ starts with the tongue below the roof. But there is no “silent” T in Saaz. Saaz is a German word, and presumably should be pronounced as it would in German. “S” is pronounced in German as “Z” is pronounced in English, and “Z” is pronounced as “TS”

Saaz hops substitutes / alternatives? Saaz hops can be substituted with Motueka B Saaz, Saaz (US), Sterling, Lubelska-Pulawy, Moteuka, Centennial and Amarillo.

Saaz hops flavour? Saaz is one of the four original Noble hops and has a distinctive and classic aroma. It displays a mild, spicy aroma. It’s known for its prominent use in Stella Artois and countless Bohemian Lagers.

Saaz hops beers? Lagers and pilseners often use saaz hops. If you’d like to taste beers single hopped with saaz, try pilseners, or if you’re adventurous you can try Hope Estate’s Raspberry Sour raspberry berliner weisse beer or their FKA Sour Mango berliner weisse beer. You can also try beers which are single hopped with Motueka.

What’s in Stella Artois? This medium, easy drinking and refreshing 4.8% ABV pilsner lager has a distinctive malty bitter taste of the world’s best Saaz hops. Stella Artois contains only four ingredients: maize, hops, malted barley and water and is suitable for vegetarians and vegans.

Posted on

Cascade Hops

Cascade Hops

Cascade (US) hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Floral, with elements of citrus and notes of grapefruit
  • Purpose: Bittering & Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 4.5%-8.9%
  • Beta Acids: 3.6%-7.5%
  • Origin: US
  • Substitutes: Centennial, Amarillo, Columbus, Ahtanum
  • Style Guide: Barley Wine, American Pale Ale, Ale, Lager

Australian cascade hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Same as Cascade (US) but with more notes of grapefruit
  • Purpose: Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 5%-7%
  • Beta Acids: 5%-7%
  • Origin: Australia
  • Substitutes: Hallertau, East Kent Golding
  • Style Guide: Barley Wine, American Pale Ale, Australian Lager

Cascade hops are one of the most popular ingredients among brewers. Here are some FAQs people often ask about Cascade hops.

What beers use Cascade hops? The following list of beer styles commonly use cascade hops to help them achieve the flavour and aromas that make each of them unique.

  • American Pale Ale
  • India Pale Ale
  • American Porter
  • Blonde Ale
  • Amber Ale
  • American Hefeweizen
  • American Barley Wine
  • Red Ale

Beers with cascade hops: try the Mikkeller Single Hop Cascade IPA, the Hermitage Cascade 45 Single Hop IPA 7% and also try Little Creatures’ India Pale Ale (from the Single Batches).

What do Cascade hops taste like? Cascade has a pleasant, flowery and spicy, citrus-like quality with a slight grapefruit characteristic. In our opinion, Cascade hops also have a pineapple aroma. The hop is good for both flavour and aroma uses. It can also be used for bittering effectively, and can be used to make any ales, and indeed is characteristic of American pale ales; used in some lagers.

Where do Cascade hops come from? Cascade is grown in the U.S.A. in Oregon and Washington State. Willamette is a triploid aroma-type hop, which originated in the mid 1970’s and is a seedling of Fuggle. It is a very popular aroma hop, contributing in 1998 to 18% of the total USA hop crop.

Is Cascade a bittering hop? Magnum, Northern Brewer, and Cascade tend to be some of the most popular bittering hops. Most hops can be grouped as “citrus, piney, earthy” etc. and having a chart of this will allow you to easily substitute hops. it’s interesting to me to see people saying that cascade is used commonly as a bittering hop.

Why do hops taste like grapefruit? Lots of beer makers stick to various citrusy hops instead of actually adding grapefruit; Columbus, for example, especially gives off strong grapefruit flavor and aroma. … Its newest grapefruit puree adds a touch of tart, citrus flavor to a variety of fruit beers, ciders, meads and other fermented beverages.

What is Cascade in beer? Similar in flavour profile is the hop sometimes called “super Cascade:” Centennial. Boasting an elevated alpha acid content—this is the stuff that makes hops taste bitter—of 8 to 11%, compared to Cascade’s 4 to 6%, Centennial yields a more potent bitterness when used in similar quantities.

How do you grow Cascade hops? Place the rhizomes about 4 inches deep, and make your mound of soil about a foot high to aid drainage. Place the root side of the rhizome down. Cover the mound with some straw or light mulch to inhibit the weeds. The hop bines grow vertically and require some kind of trellis.