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Which Hops Have the Most Geraniol?

Geraniol Hops

Geraniol has a waxy, sweet rose odour and is found in many but not all hops. It’s found in Cascade, Citra, Centennial, Chinook, Pacific Hallertau, Southern Cross, Motueka, Aurora, and Styrian Golding hops. It isn’t found in UK Challenger, U. S. Challenger, Alsace Strisselspalt, Spalt Select, Sterling, Czech Saaz, Millennium, or German Magnum.

It’s also a primary component of the essential oils of roses, palmarosa and citronella, and is found in small quantities in geranium and lemon. It has a rose-like, floral, and citrus fruit aroma and flavor. Geraniol is also found in coriander, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose, blueberry, and blackberry. It is commonly used in perfumes and flavours such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry.

Geraniol attracts bees but repels of mosquitoes and is used in many DEET-free repellent preparations. Geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honeybees to mark nectar-bearing flowers and locate the entrances to their hives.

It has low solubility in water, but it is soluble in common organic solvents. When oxidized, geraniol becomes geranial or citral. Geraniol is a byproduct of the metabolism of sorbate and, thus, is a very unpleasant contaminant of wine if bacteria are allowed to grow in it.

Geraniol is a moderate skin irritant and can cause allergies. Exposed to air, its oxidation products are more irritant and allergenic.

Which hops have the most geraniol? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their geraniol content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Geraniol %
Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Brewers Gold 1.34 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Brewers Gold (GR) 1.16 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Centennial 1.14 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Styrian Aurora 0.85 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Cluster 0.83 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Simcoe 0.66 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Crystal 0.59 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Chinook 0.59 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Mosaic 0.59 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Bravo 0.5 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Warrior 0.48 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Galena 0.41 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Tahoma 0.35 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Equinox 0.33 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Sorachi Ace 0.31 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Summit 0.3 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Citra 0.3 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Mt. Rainier 0.29 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Brewers Delight 0.28
Ahtanum 0.27 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Chelan 0.27 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 0.26 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Mt. Hood 0.26 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Columbus 0.26 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Palisade 0.25 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Hallertau 0.23 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Glacier 0.23 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Perle 0.22 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Saaz 0.22 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Horizon 0.22 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Sterling 0.21 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Bullion 0.21 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Ultra 0.21 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Newport 0.2 Mild
Northern Brewer (GR) 0.18 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Cascade 0.18 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Herkules (GR) 0.16 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Amarillo 0.16 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
EKG (UK) 0.15 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Tettnang 0.15 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Northern Brewer 0.15 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Bitter Gold 0.15 No specific aroma characteristics
Magnum 0.14 No distinct aroma characteristics
Tettnang (GR) 0.14 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
WGV (UK) 0.13 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Millenium 0.13 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Admiral (UK) 0.12 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Willamette 0.12 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Fuggle 0.11 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Styrian Celeia 0.11 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Liberty 0.1 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Golding 0.09 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Triplepearl 0.09 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Vanguard 0.08 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Nugget 0.07 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Perle (GR) 0.06 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Yakima Gold 0.06 Mild and pleasant
Santiam 0.05 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
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Which Hops Have the Most Farnesene?

Farnesene Hops

Farnesene (including α-Farnesene and β-Farnesene) is a component of the essential oils of hops. Farnesenes have a woody, citrus, floral, herbal aroma and are found in many other plants including hops, ginger, turmeric, ylang-ylang, and chamomile, and also in some insects.

The presence or absence of farnesene (sometimes referred to as beta farnesene) is a distinguishing feature for some hops. In Hallertauer Mittelfrüh and many other (but not all) German varieties; for instance, farnesene is completely absent, while in Czech Saaz, German Tettnanger, all Slovenian varieties, and several American varieties, most notably Sterling, it is present in high levels, at roughly 10% to 20% of total oils.

Because farnesene is hydrophobic and volatile, the compound itself is usually not found in beer unless the beer has been dry hopped with a variety that contains farnesene, and even then it is present in only very small amounts. However, high levels of farnesene in hops generally correlate well with pleasant, noble-type hop aroma in beer.

α-Farnesene is the main compound contributing to the scent of gardenia, making up about 65% of the headspace constituents. It’s also found in the coating of apples, and other fruits, and it is responsible for the characteristic green apple odour. Its oxidation by air forms compounds that are damage the fruit and cause it to bruise and rot. Alpha-farnesene is also used as a flavoring agent, with a floral, woody, vegetable flavour.Farnesenes act as alarm pheromones in termites or food attractants for the apple tree pest, the codling moth.

β-Farnesene is a constituent of various essential oils and it’s also released by aphids as an alarm pheremone upon death to warn away other aphids. B-farnesene is often added to lubricants, greases, personal care products, and plastic and rubber products.

Farnesenes act as alarm pheromones in termites or food attractants for the apple tree pest, the codling moth. Several plants, including potato species, use Farnesene as a natural insect repellent.

Farnesene is known to have anti-inflammatory, calming, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, and sedative properties.

Which hops have the most farnesene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their farnesene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Farnesene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Tettnang (GR) 23.7 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Sterling 17.64 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Santiam 17.04 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Saaz 10.84 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Yakima Gold 9.55 Mild and pleasant
Willamette 7.98 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Styrian Celeia 7.15 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Perle (GR) 6.62 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Admiral (UK) 6.58 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Fuggle 6.54 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Styrian Aurora 6.53 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Amarillo 6.39 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Cascade 6.3 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Hallertau 5.7 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Tettnang 5.66 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Sorachi Ace 5.03 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Horizon 3.51 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 2.08 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
EKG (UK) 1.07 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Perle 1.03 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
WGV (UK) 1.01 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Golding 0.71 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Brewers Delight 0.62
Northern Brewer 0.61 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Liberty 0.55 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Magnum 0.47 No distinct aroma characteristics
Bullion 0.43 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Newport 0.41 Mild
Vanguard 0.35 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Summit 0.33 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Cluster 0.31 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Chinook 0.3 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Equinox 0.29 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Triplepearl 0.28 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Nugget 0.26 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Brewers Gold 0.23 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Columbus 0.23 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Galena 0.22 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Glacier 0.21 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Millenium 0.21 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Tahoma 0.21 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Brewers Gold (GR) 0.2 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Mt. Hood 0.2 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Simcoe 0.2 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Palisade 0.2 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Centennial 0.2 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Herkules (GR) 0.19 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Bitter Gold 0.19 No specific aroma characteristics
Bravo 0.19 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Chelan 0.18 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Ultra 0.18 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Citra 0.15 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Crystal 0.12 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Ahtanum 0.12 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Warrior 0.12 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Mosaic 0.12 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Northern Brewer (GR) 0.1 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Mt. Rainier 0.1 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
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Which Hops have the Most Humulene?

Humulene Hops

Humulene, also known as α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is one of the components of the essential oil from the flowering cone of the hops plant. It’s a naturally occurring terpene, first found in hops (Humulus lulupus) from which it derives its name. It’s an isomer of β-caryophyllene, and the two are often found together as a mixture in many aromatic plants including pine trees, orange trees, marsh elders, tobacco, and sunflower plants. Humulene is also found in sage, basil, cloves, Japanese spicebush, ginseng, mint, ginger, Vietnamese coriander and cannabis.

The concentration of humulene varies among different varieties of hops but can be up to 40% of the essential oil. Humulene and its reaction products in the brewing process of beer gives many beers their earthy, woody, piney, “hoppy” aroma. It has been said that noble hop varieties have been found to have higher levels of humulene, while other bitter hop varieties contain low levels.

The ratio of humulene to caryophyllene varies from one hop variety to another, but many brewers consider a good aroma to be one that has a ratio of greater than 3:1. Such hops tend to be floral, herbal, and spicy in character.

Some varieties, such as Hallertauer Mittelfrüh and U.K. Kent Golding, may contain 30% or more of their essential oils in humulene, but, because humulene is highly volatile and hydrophobic, only trace quantities of it may actually reach the final beer. Oxidation products of humulene, on the other hand, especially humulene mono-and di-epoxides, can impart significant amounts of aroma to beer. Humulene epoxide III is one of the most potent flavor compounds in Hallertauer Mittelfrüh, for instance, a variety that is high in humulene but relatively low in total oils.

Allowing hops that are high in humulene to age in bales for several weeks prior to pelletizing will result in greater amounts of humulene epoxides, as well as other hop oil oxidation products, which some brewers believe can significantly increase the hops’s aroma potential.

Which hops have the most humulene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their humulene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Humulene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Vanguard 51.1 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
Admiral (UK) 46.87 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
EKG (UK) 45.95 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Perle (GR) 40.38 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
WGV (UK) 40.36 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Golding 39.84 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Liberty 37.86 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Fuggle 36.37 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 36.18 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Perle 35.28 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Tettnang 33.59 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Willamette 33.03 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Northern Brewer (GR) 32.41 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Hallertau 32.39 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Styrian Celeia 32.13 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
Magnum 31.21 No distinct aroma characteristics
Brewers Gold (GR) 30.48 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Northern Brewer 29.44 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Glacier 29.08 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Saaz 28.18 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Tettnang (GR) 27.12 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Mt. Hood 26.8 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Crystal 26.58 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Santiam 25.81 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Herkules (GR) 25.62 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Styrian Aurora 24.16 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Sorachi Ace 22.62 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Yakima Gold 22.62 Mild and pleasant
Millenium 22.2 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Ahtanum 20.69 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Sterling 19.33 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Summit 19.21 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Equinox 19.07 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Bullion 18.84 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Cluster 18.82 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Nugget 18.8 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Chinook 18.35 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Mt. Rainier 17.92 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Amarillo 17.9 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Simcoe 17.42 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Newport 17.32 Mild
Horizon 16.36 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Warrior 16.03 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Brewers Gold 15.65 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Brewers Delight 15.22
Palisade 14.89 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Cascade 14.19 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Galena 13.53 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Bitter Gold 13.49 No specific aroma characteristics
Chelan 12.66 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Ultra 12.53 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Columbus 11.99 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Tahoma 11.68 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Centennial 10.68 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Mosaic 10.62 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Bravo 8.97 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Citra 8.73 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Triplepearl 7.2 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
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Which Hops Have the Most Caryophyllene?

Caryophyllene Hops

Caryophyllene is a natural terpene that is a constituent of the essential oils of hops and other plants, especially cloves, cannabis and rosemary. Caryophyllene is one of the chemical compounds that contributes to the aroma of black pepper. Some say that caryophyllene has a woody, herbal, European aroma. It has anti-inflammatory properties.

Caryophyllene, like myrcene, is used often in the perfume industry to aid in aroma dispersion. It’s found in foods including ice cream, baked goods and beverages.

Which hops have the most caryophyllene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their caryophyllene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Caryophyllene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Vanguard 15.62 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
EKG (UK) 14.93 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Perle (GR) 14.67 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Brewers Gold (GR) 14.61 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Admiral (UK) 14.21 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Perle 14.03 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Fuggle 14.01 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
Tettnang 13.48 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Northern Brewer 13.24 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Willamette 13.18 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Summit 12.85 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Styrian Celeia 12.82 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
WGV (UK) 12.54 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Mt. Hood 12.49 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Golding 12.37 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Northern Brewer (GR) 12.34 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Warrior 12.06 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Palisade 11.92 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Horizon 11.13 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Bullion 10.95 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Equinox 10.9 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Saaz 10.78 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Hallertau (GR) 10.37 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Chelan 10.09 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Ahtanum 10.05 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Magnum 9.98 No distinct aroma characteristics
Hallertau 9.64 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Brewers Gold 9.61 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Liberty 9.58 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Millenium 9.26 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Newport 9.24 Mild
Glacier 9.11 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Nugget 9.07 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Brewers Delight 8.8
Simcoe 8.72 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Bitter Gold 8.62 No specific aroma characteristics
Chinook 8.5 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Cluster 8.45 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Ultra 7.99 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Santiam 7.88 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Tettnang (GR) 7.74 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Mt. Rainier 7.66 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Sorachi Ace 7.63 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Columbus 7.58 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Yakima Gold 7.47 Mild and pleasant
Galena 7.44 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Crystal 7.34 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Styrian Aurora 7.27 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Herkules (GR) 7.14 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Sterling 6.66 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Bravo 6.62 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Amarillo 6.53 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Cascade 6.23 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Citra 5.58 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Centennial 5.23 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Mosaic 4.24 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Triplepearl 3.92 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Tahoma 3.79 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
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Which Hops Have the Most Myrcene?

Myrcene Hops

Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is a significant component of the essential oil of hops, and other highly fragrant plants including mangoes, bay laurel leaves, cannabis, ylang-ylang, thyme, lemongrass, basil, parsley and cardamom.

Myrcene is the terpene most frequently found in cannabis and it is considered one of the ten primary terpenes. It’s often referred to as one of the most “earthy” smelling varieties of terpene, featuring musky notes likened to cloves. Some say that myrcene flavour and aroma is green, resinous and piney, others say floral, citrus and piney.

Myrcene is widely used in the perfume industry, although rarely as a fragrant compound in its own right; more commonly, it is used as an industrial precursor to various other terpenes including geraniol, menthol, citral and nerol.

Studies have shown that myrcene tends to encourage the notorious “couch-lock” induced by the sedative qualities of THC and a high concentration of Myrcene. At the same time, many myrcene strains are known for producing joyful and euphoric effects, in addition to an overall feeling of relaxation.

Which hops have the most myrcene? Below is a table which ranks hops in terms of their myrcene content as a percentage of the total oil content.

Variety Myrcene % Aroma Wheel Placement Description
Citra 66.53 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee
Centennial 65.37 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones
Tahoma 64.23 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes.
Bravo 62.37 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics
Mosaic 61.84 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics
Mt. Rainier 58.04 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones
Ultra 56.74 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones
Brewers Gold 56.44 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant
Cascade 56.33 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones
Triplepearl 55.89 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper
Ahtanum 54.11 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones
Columbus 53.2 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones
Bitter Gold 53.02 No specific aroma characteristics
Palisade 52.51 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics
Newport 52.21 Mild
Amarillo 52.14 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics
Nugget 51.15 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones
Sorachi Ace 50.49 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics
Simcoe 50.35 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics
Chelan 50.35 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics
Horizon 49.79 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics
Bullion 49.11 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics
Galena 47.45 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones
Brewers Delight 45.9
Warrior 44.77 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics
Crystal 44.67 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral
Millenium 44.55 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones
Herkules (GR) 44.25 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon
Glacier 43.95 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma
Cluster 43.69 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics
Mt. Hood 41.97 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy
Summit 41.41 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones
Magnum 41.24 No distinct aroma characteristics
Sterling 40.13 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics
Northern Brewer 39.86 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics
Yakima Gold 39.62 Mild and pleasant
Chinook 38.21 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit
Styrian Aurora 36.68 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics
Northern Brewer (GR) 35.47 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones
Equinox 34.09 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper.
Perle 33.04 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Saaz 32.28 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones
Hallertau 30.9 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics
Liberty 29.94 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics
Tettnang 28.82 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy
Willamette 28.01 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones
Brewers Gold (GR) 26.55 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics
Perle (GR) 25.91 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones
Golding 25.89 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics
Hallertau (GR) 24.93 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones
Santiam 24.59 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics
Fuggle 24.24 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics
WGV (UK) 22.42 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors
Styrian Celeia 17.6 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties
EKG (UK) 15.63 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones
Tettnang (GR) 11.8 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions
Admiral (UK) 4.8 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors
Vanguard 4.63 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones
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Fuggle Hops

Fuggle Hops

Fuggle hops are also known as Fuggles hops and Fuggle UK. Fuggles are also identical to Styrian Golding. Fuggle is used in breeding and is parent to Willamette, Cascade, and Glacier hops.

Fuggle hops profile:

  • Purpose: Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 2.4%-6.1%
  • Beta Acids: 2.1%-2.8%
  • Origin: UK
  • Substitutes: Fuggle (US), Willamette, Styrian Golding, Tettnanger, Newport
  • Style Guide: English Ale, Porter, Mild Ale, Bitter, Extra Special Bitter, Lambic, Amber Ale, Cask Ale, Stout, Oatmeal Stout, Strong Ale, Nut Brown Ale, Golden Ale, Christmas Ale

Here are some questions people often ask about Fuggle hops.

How do you pronounce fuggle? “Fug” rhymes with hug. The “gle” is the same as it is in giggle.

What flavour do fuggles have? Originally used as a bittering and aroma hop, fuggles have more recently been used as primarily an aroma hop. The earthy and woody characteristics of Fuggle makes a great addition in English style ales, milds, bitters and porters.

Beers with fuggles? If you want to taste a single hopped fuggle beer try Little Creatures’ The Fuggle is Real stout in a can.

Can you use Fuggles as a bittering hop? Although they were originally a bittering and aroma hop, Fuggles are now primarily used as an aroma hop. Fuggles aren’t typically used for bittering because their alpha acids are so low. They don’t have a bitter harshness but you can still use them for bittering.

Can you dry hop with fuggles? Fuggles can be grassy and earthy when dry hopped. Some people dislike fuggles dry hopped, but others have a taste for it. Love ’em or hate ’em.

What are the substitutes for fuggle hops? Fuggles can be replaced with Styrian Golding hops, Fuggle (US) hops and Willamette hops. You can also replace Fuggles with Tettnanger and Newport hops.

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Chinook Hops

Chinook Hops

Chinook hops are a very distinctive dual-purpose hop used in Ales, commonly in IPA, for both bittering and flavor/aroma. 

Chinook hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Bouquet of pine and spice
  • Purpose: Bittering & Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 12%-14%
  • Beta Acids: 3%-4%
  • Substitutes: Galena, Eroica, Nugget, Bullion, Columbus, Northern Brewer, Target
  • Style Guide: Winter Ale, Pale Ale, India Pale Ale, Porter, Stout, Lager, Barley Wine, American Lager, American Ale

Here are some questions people often ask about Chinook hops:

What flavour do Chinook hops have? Chinook hops are mild to medium-heavy, spicy, piney, and grapefruity.

Which beers have chinook hops? Try the Mikkeller Single Hop Chinook IPA or BrewDog have a Chinook single hopped style in their 4 pack, BrewDog IPA is Dead Single Hop IPA 4 Pack (Chinook, Ella, Pioneer & Mandarina Bavaria).

What can you substitute Chinook hops with? Chinook hops can be substituted with Nugget hops, Columbus hops, Northern Brewer hops and U.K. Target hops.

Which hops can you combine Chinook with? Chinook hops are great on their own but they can also compliment Galaxy hops, Crystal hops, Ahtanum hops and maybe Cascade. They also go well combined with Simcoe and Centennial.

Can you use Chinook for dry hopping? Chinook is primarily used for its high alpha acid content as a bittering hop. These days, however, late additions and even dryhopping with Chinooks is becoming more popular. This hop can contribute herbal, piney, and smoky aromatic qualities to a beer.

 

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East Kent Golding Hops

Kent Golding Hops

EKG Hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Aromas of lavender, spice, honey, thyme, earthy flavors
  • Purpose: Aroma
  • Alpha Acid Composition: 5%-6%
  • Beta Acid Composition: 2%-3%
  • Origin: England
  • Substitutes: Whitbread Golding, Progress, Fuggle, First Gold
  • Style Guide: Pale Ale, Extra Special English Ale, English Dark Ale, English Light Ale, Belgian Ale, Christmas Ale

Here are some common questions people have about EKG hops.

Which beers have EKG hops? There aren’t many EKG single hopped beers around in Australia, we’ve seen there’s a Mikkeller Single Hop East Kent Golding IPA, so it could be a good idea for someone to release a beer single hopped with EKG.

Can you use Kent Goldings for bitterring? East Kent Golding is prized for its aroma, which makes it suitable for dry hopping, but many brewers use it for bittering as well. Like most of the English hop varieties, East Kent Golding is fairly earthy in flavor, and here that quality is combined with apricot and slight notes of spice

What can you subsitute Kent Goldings hops with? You can substitute EKG with Golding Progress, Whitbread Golding, Fuggle and First Gold hops.

What’s the difference between EKG goldings and goldings? They’re very similar hops, the difference is in name reflects where they’re grown. Goldings are a group of traditional and very popular English aroma hops grown prior to 1790, they’re also cultivated also in the USA. They are called East Kent Goldings if grown in East Kent, Kent Goldings if grown in mid-Kent, and Goldings if grown elsewhere in the U.K. There are many different named cultivars such as Amon’s Early Bird, Cobbs, Bramling, Canterbury, Petham Rodmersham and in Worcestershire – Mathon. They tend to have a smooth, sweet flavor. Most types of Goldings will work in place of another (Whitbread Golding Variety for East Kent Goldings, e.g.). Note that Styrian Goldings are not of this family, they rather are identical to Fuggles.

East Kent Goldings for sale.

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Centennial Hops

Centennial Hops

Centennial hops profile: Centennial is a much-celebrated hop in its versatility with its depth of bitterness. It’s used in ales and IPAs for its high alpha content and is floral in both flavour and aroma.

  • Alpha Acid Composition‎: ‎9.5%-11.5%
  • Beta Acid Composition‎: ‎3.5%-4.5%
  • Total Oil Composition‎: ‎1.5-2.5 mL/100
  • Beer styles: Ale, India pale ale
  • Similar hops: Cascade, Chinook, Tomahawk
  • Aroma: ‎Earthy, Citrus, Floral
  • Purpose: Dual-purpose
  • Origin: United States of America

Here is a question that is often asked about Centennial:

What do Centennial hops taste like? Centennial hops are sometimes called “super cascade” because they are similar in flavour profile. Centennial hops vs cascade: Centennial hops taste bitter because they have an elevated alpha acid content of 8 to 11%, compared to Cascade’s 4 to 6%, Centennial yields a more potent bitterness when used in similar quantities.

Are centennial hops good for bittering? This dual-use variety has substantial alpha-acid content as well as a nice aroma. Centennial is often used for bittering additions. It is complimentary to many American hop varieties when used in that role

Centennial hops substitutes: Centennial can be substituted with cascade, tomhawk or chinook.

Centennial hops beers? These beers are single hopped with centennial: Ballistic Centennial Single Hop IPA and Mikkeller Centennial Single Hop IPA.

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Saaz Hops

Saaz Hops

Saaz hops, also known as Czech Saaz, Saazer and Czech Saazer, have characteristics which are used in styles like Bohemian Pilsners (Bohemia is a region of Czechia). Saaz hops were named after the Czech city of Žatec (German: Saaz).

Saaz hops profile:

  • Characteristics: Noble, herbal character
  • Purpose: Aroma
  • Alpha Acids: 2.5%-4.5%
  • Beta Acids: 4%-6%
  • Origin: Czechia
  • Substitutes: Saaz (US), Sterling, Lubelska-Pulawy, Moteuka, Centennial, Amarillo®, Motueka B Saaz
  • Style Guide: Lager, Pilsner

Here are some faqs people have about Saaz hops.

Where are Saaz hops grown? There are varieties grown in Czechia (Czech Republic), Belgium and New Zealand and a higher alpha acid variety of Saaz hops are now grown in the United States.

How do you pronounce Saaz? ‘Zots’ starts with the tongue below the roof. But there is no “silent” T in Saaz. Saaz is a German word, and presumably should be pronounced as it would in German. “S” is pronounced in German as “Z” is pronounced in English, and “Z” is pronounced as “TS”

Saaz hops substitutes / alternatives? Saaz hops can be substituted with Motueka B Saaz, Saaz (US), Sterling, Lubelska-Pulawy, Moteuka, Centennial and Amarillo.

Saaz hops flavour? Saaz is one of the four original Noble hops and has a distinctive and classic aroma. It displays a mild, spicy aroma. It’s known for its prominent use in Stella Artois and countless Bohemian Lagers.

Saaz hops beers? Lagers and pilseners often use saaz hops. If you’d like to taste beers single hopped with saaz, try pilseners, or if you’re adventurous you can try Hope Estate’s Raspberry Sour raspberry berliner weisse beer or their FKA Sour Mango berliner weisse beer. You can also try beers which are single hopped with Motueka.

What’s in Stella Artois? This medium, easy drinking and refreshing 4.8% ABV pilsner lager has a distinctive malty bitter taste of the world’s best Saaz hops. Stella Artois contains only four ingredients: maize, hops, malted barley and water and is suitable for vegetarians and vegans.