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Popular International Hops Varieties

Cascade Hops

What are the most popular hops?

Hop varieties for brewing purposes are loosely grouped according to their alpha acid percentage (bitterness) and essential oil content (aroma). The terms used to identify the key varietal groups are bitter, aroma and dual purpose.

The International Hop Growers Convention (IHGC) maintains a comprehensive list of hop varieties grown worldwide. The IHGC is a member‐based organisation with the primary goal of safeguarding the common interests of hop growers and hop merchants. Its activities are non‐political and focus mostly on furthering the economic and technical aspects of hop production.

The complete 2016 IHGC Hop variety list includes details for 247 varieties grown by member organisations from 20 nations. The list is too large to reproduce here, however, it can be accessed via the IHGC web site (www.hmelj-giz.si/ihgc).

The peak body for hops production in the United States of America is USA Hops. This organisation prepares an annual statistical report that contains data on US domestic and international hops production. The 2016 USA Hops statistical report is a useful source of data on varieties produced in the USA. It is accessible via the USA Hops web site (www.usahops.org).

Below are the top 10 varieties currently planted in the USA. This list gives us insight to the range of key variety types grown by the largest producing nation. It is clear that, to meet the demand of the brewing
industry and its consumers, a mix of bittering, aroma and dual purpose hops are grown.

Top 10 varieties by acreage in the USA in 2016. Source: International Hop Growers’ Convention (2016).

Variety or brand name, Type, Origin & Plant variety rights

  1. Cascade, aroma, USA – public USDA
  2. Centennial, dual, USA – public WSU
  3. Citra®, HBC 394, aroma, USA private breeding program US Patent
  4. Simcoe®, YCR 14, dual, USA private breeding program US Patent
  5. Zeus, bitter, USA private breeding program
  6. Mosaic®, HBC 369, aroma, USA private breeding program US Patent
  7. Chinook, dual, USA – public WSU
  8. Summit, bitter, USA private breeding program US Patent, EU PVR
  9. Nugget, bitter, USA – public USDA
  10. Willamette, aroma, USA – public USDA

Websites:

  • International Hop Growers Convention www.hmelj-giz.si/ihgc
  • IHGC hop variety list www.hmelj-giz.si/ihgc/doc/2016%20NOV%20-%20IHGC%20hop%20variety%20list.pdf

Here are some questions people often ask:

What are the best hops? It depends on what you mean by “best”. It’s subjective. You could consider the hops aroma, flavour, purpose, its acid content and more.

How many varieties of hops are there? There are about 80 different hops plant types commercially available today, but that number is not hard and fast. Beer brewing is a complex business, and new varieties are constantly being bred and developed.

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Hops Analysis

Hops Analysis

Hops Analysis

Growing hops in Australia is becoming more common – with this comes a greater need for formally analysing hops samples in the laboratory. Analytically profiling hops material gives important information about aroma and bitterness potential, and overall quality. Brewers are most interested in the α and β hop acids, total essential oils and the hop oil profile.

The α and β acids are the primary precursors that contribute to bitter attributes in beer. Values obtained from this analysis are used to formulate beer recipes to gain the desired bitterness levels, and are also a key indicator of hops quality. The essential oils in hops are important contributors to beer flavour and aroma. The total essential oil measure is the percentage of oil contained within the hops (based on mass) and gives an indication of the overall aroma potential of the hops. The hop oil profile is an extension of this analysis in the sense that it details the concentrations of specific flavour and aroma compounds within the hops oil. This provides information about the aroma profile the hops will give. This combination of analysis is useful in creating a hop profile, allowing easier comparison between varieties and giving an indication of the properties that can influence beer flavour and aroma.

What are the components of hops and their essential oils? What alpha acids and beta acids are present in hops? Here is a table which details the components found in many hops:

Variety Alpha/Beta Aroma Wheel Placement Description Alpha Beta Total oil B-Pinene % Myrcene % Linalool % Caryophyllene % Farnesene % Humulene % Geraniol % Other % B-Pinene Amount Myrcene Amount Linalool Amount Caryophyllene Amount Farnesene Amount Humulene Amount Geraniol Amount Other Amount
Admiral (UK) 1.97 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Pleasant, resinous hop aroma with hints of citrus (orange) and herbal flavors 14.2 7.2 0.2 0.08 4.8 0.17 14.21 6.58 46.87 0.12 27.17 0.00016 0.0096 0.00034 0.02842 0.01316 0.09374 0.00024 0.05434
Ahtanum 0.86 Citrus, Floral, Tobacco/Earthy Floral, earthy, citrus and grapefruit tones 4.3 5 1.3 0.91 54.11 0.36 10.05 0.12 20.69 0.27 13.51 0.01183 0.70343 0.00468 0.13065 0.00156 0.26897 0.00351 0.17563
Amarillo 1.45 Citrus, Floral, Tropical Fruit Floral, tropical, and citrus (lemon, orange and grapefruit) characteristics 9 6.2 1.7 0.79 52.14 0.61 6.53 6.39 17.9 0.16 15.48 0.01343 0.88638 0.01037 0.11101 0.10863 0.3043 0.00272 0.26316
Bitter Gold 2.43 No specific aroma characteristics 13.6 5.6 1.4 0.82 53.02 0.54 8.62 0.19 13.49 0.15 23.17 0.01148 0.74228 0.00756 0.12068 0.00266 0.18886 0.0021 0.32438
Bravo 3.66 Fruity, Floral Pleasant fruity and floral aroma characteristics 16.1 4.4 3.2 1.02 62.37 0.47 6.62 0.19 8.97 0.5 19.85 0.03264 1.99584 0.01504 0.21184 0.00608 0.28704 0.016 0.6352
Brewers Delight 2.28 11.4 5 1.4 0.76 45.9 0.45 8.8 0.62 15.22 0.28 27.99 0.01064 0.6426 0.0063 0.1232 0.00868 0.21308 0.00392 0.39186
Brewers Gold 1.92 Fruity, Spicy Spicy, fruity characteristics, black currant 10 5.2 2 0.84 56.44 0.68 9.61 0.23 15.65 1.34 15.21 0.0168 1.1288 0.0136 0.1922 0.0046 0.313 0.0268 0.3042
Brewers Gold (GR) 1.27 Fruity, Spicy Black currant, fruit and spice characteristics 4.7 3.7 0.8 0.5 26.55 0.52 14.61 0.2 30.48 1.16 25.98 0.004 0.2124 0.00416 0.11688 0.0016 0.24384 0.00928 0.20784
Bullion 1.84 Fruity Strong and zesty blackcurrant characteristics 8.1 4.4 1.2 0.76 49.11 0.74 10.95 0.43 18.84 0.21 18.98 0.00912 0.58932 0.00888 0.1314 0.00516 0.22608 0.00252 0.22776
Cascade 1.06 Fruity, Citrus, Floral Medium intense floral, citrus and grapefruit tones 7.4 7 1.5 0.83 56.33 0.49 6.23 6.3 14.19 0.18 15.44 0.01245 0.84495 0.00735 0.09345 0.0945 0.21285 0.0027 0.2316
Centennial 2.55 Citrus, Floral Medium intensity floral and citrus (lemon) tones 10.2 4 2.4 1.09 65.37 0.67 5.23 0.2 10.68 1.14 15.63 0.02616 1.56888 0.01608 0.12552 0.0048 0.25632 0.02736 0.37512
Chelan 1.50 Citrus, Floral Mild floral and citrus characteristics 14.1 9.4 1.4 0.7 50.35 0.39 10.09 0.18 12.66 0.27 25.36 0.0098 0.7049 0.00546 0.14126 0.00252 0.17724 0.00378 0.35504
Chinook 3.57 Citrus, Spicy, Pine Distinct, medium intensity spice and pine characteristics with subtle notes of grapefruit 13.2 3.7 2 0.6 38.21 0.45 8.5 0.3 18.35 0.59 33 0.012 0.7642 0.009 0.17 0.006 0.367 0.0118 0.66
Citra 3.73 Fruity, Citrus, Tropical Fruit Strong citrus and tropical tones of grapefruit, melon, lime, gooseberry, passion fruit and lychee 13.8 3.7 2.8 0.88 66.53 0.77 5.58 0.15 8.73 0.3 17.07 0.02464 1.86284 0.02156 0.15624 0.0042 0.24444 0.0084 0.47796
Cluster 1.55 Floral, Spicy Strong floral and spicy characteristics 8.2 5.3 0.5 0.67 43.69 0.46 8.45 0.31 18.82 0.83 26.78 0.00335 0.21845 0.0023 0.04225 0.00155 0.0941 0.00415 0.1339
Columbus 3.06 Citrus, Spicy Pungent, black pepper, licorice characteristics with subtle citrus overtones 16.5 5.4 2.9 0.89 53.2 0.45 7.58 0.23 11.99 0.26 25.39 0.02581 1.5428 0.01305 0.21982 0.00667 0.34771 0.00754 0.73631
Crystal 0.63 Spicy Mild, spicy and floral 4.6 7.3 1.4 0.67 44.67 0.9 7.34 0.12 26.58 0.59 19.14 0.00938 0.62538 0.0126 0.10276 0.00168 0.37212 0.00826 0.26796
EKG (UK) 1.70 Floral, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Smooth and delicate with floral, lavender, spice, honey, earth, lemon and thyme overtones 5.1 3 0.4 0.29 15.63 0.56 14.93 1.07 45.95 0.15 21.42 0.00116 0.06252 0.00224 0.05972 0.00428 0.1838 0.0006 0.08568
Equinox 3.17 Citrus, Herbal, Tropical Fruit A pronounced aroma profile with citrus, tropical fruit, floral and herbal characteristics. Specific descriptors include lemon, lime, papaya, apple, and green pepper. 15.2 4.8 3.6 0.5 34.09 0.56 10.9 0.29 19.07 0.33 34.26 0.018 1.22724 0.02016 0.3924 0.01044 0.68652 0.01188 1.23336
Fuggle 1.63 Fruity, Tobacco/Earthy Mild wood and fruit characteristics 4.4 2.7 0.7 0.35 24.24 0.78 14.01 6.54 36.37 0.11 17.6 0.00245 0.16968 0.00546 0.09807 0.04578 0.25459 0.00077 0.1232
Galena 1.69 Citrus, Stone Fruit, Spicy Spicy, blackcurrant and citrus (grapefruit) tones 14.7 8.7 1.8 0.71 47.45 0.42 7.44 0.22 13.53 0.41 29.82 0.01278 0.8541 0.00756 0.13392 0.00396 0.24354 0.00738 0.53676
Glacier 0.69 Herbal Pleasant hop aroma 5 7.2 0.9 0.58 43.95 0.79 9.11 0.21 29.08 0.23 16.06 0.00522 0.39555 0.00711 0.08199 0.00189 0.26172 0.00207 0.14454
Golding 2.22 Floral, Spicy Mild and delicate with sweet floral characteristics 5.1 2.3 0.7 0.36 25.89 0.79 12.37 0.71 39.84 0.09 19.95 0.00252 0.18123 0.00553 0.08659 0.00497 0.27888 0.00063 0.13965
Hallertau 1.58 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant, yet spicy, with herbal and floral characteristics 4.9 3.1 0.8 0.41 30.9 0.77 9.64 5.7 32.39 0.23 19.97 0.00328 0.2472 0.00616 0.07712 0.0456 0.25912 0.00184 0.15976
Hallertau (GR) 0.75 Mild, yet spicy, with floral and citrus tones 3.8 5.1 0.8 0.34 24.93 0.79 10.37 2.08 36.18 0.26 25.05 0.00272 0.19944 0.00632 0.08296 0.01664 0.28944 0.00208 0.2004
Herkules (GR) 3.02 Floral Spicy, floral and hop notes with hints of pine, black pepper and melon 17.2 5.7 1.7 0.64 44.25 0.27 7.14 0.19 25.62 0.16 21.73 0.01088 0.75225 0.00459 0.12138 0.00323 0.43554 0.00272 0.36941
Horizon 1.65 Floral, Spicy Pleasant and spicy, with floral characteristics 10.4 6.3 1.2 0.7 49.79 1.1 11.13 3.51 16.36 0.22 17.21 0.0084 0.59748 0.0132 0.13356 0.04212 0.19632 0.00264 0.20652
Liberty 1.31 Citrus, Spicy Mild and spicy with subtle lemon and citrus characteristics 4.7 3.6 1.1 0.41 29.94 1.06 9.58 0.55 37.86 0.1 20.5 0.00451 0.32934 0.01166 0.10538 0.00605 0.41646 0.0011 0.2255
Magnum 2.11 No distinct aroma characteristics 13.7 6.5 1.6 0.63 41.24 0.39 9.98 0.47 31.21 0.14 15.94 0.01008 0.65984 0.00624 0.15968 0.00752 0.49936 0.00224 0.25504
Millenium 3.17 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and resinous with floral and herbal tones 16.8 5.3 2.2 0.65 44.55 0.55 9.26 0.21 22.2 0.13 22.46 0.0143 0.9801 0.0121 0.20372 0.00462 0.4884 0.00286 0.49412
Mosaic 3.57 Citrus, Floral, Grassy A complex array of tropical fruit, citrus, berry, herbal, earthy and pine characteristics 13.2 3.7 2 0.89 61.84 0.69 4.24 0.12 10.62 0.59 21 0.0178 1.2368 0.0138 0.0848 0.0024 0.2124 0.0118 0.42
Mt. Hood 0.94 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild, herbal and somewhat pungent or spicy 6.5 6.9 1.9 0.65 41.97 0.83 12.49 0.2 26.8 0.26 16.81 0.01235 0.79743 0.01577 0.23731 0.0038 0.5092 0.00494 0.31939
Mt. Rainier 0.84 Citrus, Floral, Spicy Floral and noble aromas, with citrus and licorice overtones 6.1 7.3 1.3 0.78 58.04 0.82 7.66 0.1 17.92 0.29 14.42 0.01014 0.75452 0.01066 0.09958 0.0013 0.23296 0.00377 0.18746
Newport 1.78 Mild 11.6 6.5 1.8 0.79 52.21 0.49 9.24 0.41 17.32 0.2 19.37 0.01422 0.93978 0.00882 0.16632 0.00738 0.31176 0.0036 0.34866
Northern Brewer 1.95 Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Medium intensity, pine and mint characteristics 8.2 4.2 1.4 0.66 39.86 0.48 13.24 0.61 29.44 0.15 15.56 0.00924 0.55804 0.00672 0.18536 0.00854 0.41216 0.0021 0.21784
Northern Brewer (GR) 1.58 Floral, Herbal Medium intense herbal and floral tones 6.8 4.3 1.3 0.58 35.47 0.49 12.34 0.1 32.41 0.18 18.42 0.00754 0.46111 0.00637 0.16042 0.0013 0.42133 0.00234 0.23946
Nugget 3.40 Spicy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with spicy, herbal tones 15.3 4.5 2.2 0.67 51.15 1.02 9.07 0.26 18.8 0.07 18.97 0.01474 1.1253 0.02244 0.19954 0.00572 0.4136 0.00154 0.41734
Palisade 1.15 Stone Fruit, Herbal, Grassy Apricot, grass and clean floral charcteristics 8.4 7.3 1.6 0.83 52.51 0.43 11.92 0.2 14.89 0.25 18.97 0.01328 0.84016 0.00688 0.19072 0.0032 0.23824 0.004 0.30352
Perle 2.13 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics 8.3 3.9 1.2 0.5 33.04 0.41 14.03 1.03 35.28 0.22 15.48 0.006 0.39648 0.00492 0.16836 0.01236 0.42336 0.00264 0.18576
Perle (GR) 1.22 Fruity, Floral, Spicy Delicate floral, fruit, spice and mint tones 6.1 5 1.1 0.4 25.91 0.32 14.67 6.62 40.38 0.06 11.63 0.0044 0.28501 0.00352 0.16137 0.07282 0.44418 0.00066 0.12793
Saaz 1.21 Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Mild spice and earth tones 6.3 5.2 1.2 0.49 32.28 0.71 10.78 10.84 28.18 0.22 16.49 0.00588 0.38736 0.00852 0.12936 0.13008 0.33816 0.00264 0.19788
Santiam 1.01 Floral, Spicy, Herbal Slightly spicy with herbal and floral characteristics 7.4 7.3 1.7 0.34 24.59 0.87 7.88 17.04 25.81 0.05 23.43 0.00578 0.41803 0.01479 0.13396 0.28968 0.43877 0.00085 0.39831
Simcoe 3.40 Citrus, Tobacco/Earthy, Pine Unique passionfruit, pine, earth and citrus characteristics 13.6 4 1.9 0.78 50.35 0.61 8.72 0.2 17.42 0.66 21.25 0.01482 0.95665 0.01159 0.16568 0.0038 0.33098 0.01254 0.40375
Sorachi Ace 1.72 Citrus, Herbal, Grassy Unique lemon and dill characteristics 11.7 6.8 2.3 0.75 50.49 0.51 7.63 5.03 22.62 0.31 12.67 0.01725 1.16127 0.01173 0.17549 0.11569 0.52026 0.00713 0.29141
Sterling 1.51 Citrus, Spicy Herbal and spicy, with a hint of floral, citrus (lemon/pineapple) characteristics 8 5.3 1.4 0.57 40.13 0.66 6.66 17.64 19.33 0.21 14.8 0.00798 0.56182 0.00924 0.09324 0.24696 0.27062 0.00294 0.2072
Styrian Aurora 2.18 Floral, Pine Intense and pleasant displaying floral, pine and hoppy characteristics 7.2 3.3 0.8 0.53 36.68 1 7.27 6.53 24.16 0.85 22.99 0.00424 0.29344 0.008 0.05816 0.05224 0.19328 0.0068 0.18392
Styrian Celeia 1.08 Floral Pleasant and hoppy, similar to traditional European varieties 2.7 2.5 0.8 0.27 17.6 0.79 12.82 7.15 32.13 0.11 29.14 0.00216 0.1408 0.00632 0.10256 0.0572 0.25704 0.00088 0.23312
Summit 3.23 Citrus, Spicy, Tobacco/Earthy Distinct spice, earthy, onion, garlic and citrus (pink grapefruit, orange and tangerine) tones 17.1 5.3 1.6 0.67 41.41 0.33 12.85 0.33 19.21 0.3 24.92 0.01072 0.66256 0.00528 0.2056 0.00528 0.30736 0.0048 0.39872
Tahoma 0.88 Citrus, Cedar, Pine Predominate citrus and lemon notes with cedar, pine, floral, pepper and subtle green melon notes. 6.8 7.7 1.3 0.93 64.23 0.71 3.79 0.21 11.68 0.35 18.1 0.01209 0.83499 0.00923 0.04927 0.00273 0.15184 0.00455 0.2353
Tettnang 1.69 Spicy Noble aroma that is pleasant and spicy 4.9 2.9 0.7 0.39 28.82 0.76 13.48 5.66 33.59 0.15 17.16 0.00273 0.20174 0.00532 0.09436 0.03962 0.23513 0.00105 0.12012
Tettnang (GR) 0.69 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Mild and pleasant with balanced earthy, herbal and floral aroma impressions 3.4 4.9 0.5 0.22 11.8 0.52 7.74 23.7 27.12 0.14 28.76 0.0011 0.059 0.0026 0.0387 0.1185 0.1356 0.0007 0.1438
Triplepearl 2.91 Pleasant and balanced with notes of melon, orange citrus, resin, spice and pepper 9.3 3.2 1.8 0.77 55.89 0.8 3.92 0.28 7.2 0.09 31.05 0.01386 1.00602 0.0144 0.07056 0.00504 0.1296 0.00162 0.5589
Ultra 2.39 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant with spicy, floral tones 9.1 3.8 1 0.91 56.74 1.21 7.99 0.18 12.53 0.21 20.24 0.0091 0.5674 0.0121 0.0799 0.0018 0.1253 0.0021 0.2024
Vanguard 0.92 Floral, Herbal Herbal and floral tones 5.4 5.9 0.6 0.07 4.63 0.2 15.62 0.35 51.1 0.08 27.97 0.00042 0.02778 0.0012 0.09372 0.0021 0.3066 0.00048 0.16782
Warrior 3.31 Citrus, Herbal, Pine Mild and resinous with subtle citrus, pine and herbal characteristics 15.9 4.8 1.8 0.64 44.77 0.45 12.06 0.12 16.03 0.48 25.46 0.01152 0.80586 0.0081 0.21708 0.00216 0.28854 0.00864 0.45828
WGV (UK) 1.55 Floral, Tobacco/Earthy, Herbal Fresh earthy, botanical and floral flavors 5.9 3.8 0.9 0.31 22.42 0.56 12.54 1.01 40.36 0.13 22.67 0.00279 0.20178 0.00504 0.11286 0.00909 0.36324 0.00117 0.20403
Willamette 1.46 Floral, Spicy Mild and pleasant, with slightly spicy and floral tones 5.4 3.7 1.2 0.4 28.01 0.71 13.18 7.98 33.03 0.12 16.57 0.0048 0.33612 0.00852 0.15816 0.09576 0.39636 0.00144 0.19884
Yakima Gold 2.00 Mild and pleasant 7.4 3.7 1 0.61 39.62 0.3 7.47 9.55 22.62 0.06 19.79 0.0061 0.3962 0.003 0.0747 0.0955 0.2262 0.0006 0.1979
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Hops Varieties Grown in Australia

Hops Australia

Which hops are grown in Australia?

There is no comprehensive list of all hop varieties available to grow in Australia. Only those that are grown on a commercial scale are identified in the IHGC world hop variety list.

Varieties grown commercially in Australia in 2016 (Source: www.hmelj‐giz.si/ihgc/obj.htm)

Variety or brand name, Type, Origin, Plant variety rights

  1. Astra, flavour, Australia, Ellerslie
  2. Cascade, aroma, USA
  3. Centennial, dual, USA
  4. Cluster, dual, USA
  5. Ella, flavour, Australia, HPA
  6. Enigma, flavour, Australia, HPA
  7. Galaxy, flavour, Australia, HPA
  8. Helga, aroma, Australia, HPA
  9. Melba, flavour, Australia, Ellerslie
  10. Pandora, flavour, Australia, Ellerslie
  11. Pride of Ringwood, bitter, Australia
  12. Spalter Select, aroma, Germany
  13. Summer, flavour, Australia, HPA
  14. Super Pride, bitter, Australia, HPA
  15. Topaz, flavour, Australia, HPA
  16. Victoria Secret, flavour, Australia, HPA
  17. Willamette, aroma, USA

Where are hops grown in Australia? Hops are predominantly grown in the eastern states, with Australia’s largest producers located in Victoria and Tasmania. With only very small quantities of hops grown in WA, many WA breweries sourced dried product from interstate and overseas.

Hops Growing involves considering crop rotation, soil, position, frost tolerance, feeding, companion plants, spacing, sowing and planting, harvesting and trouble shooting.

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Aroma Hops and Flavour Hops

Aroma Hops, Flavour Hops, Dual Purpose Hops

Aroma Hops and Flavour Hops

Bittering Hops

Dual-Purpose Hops

Aroma Hops and Flavour Hops

A rapid and sustained growth in the craft beer brewing industry overseas and here in Australia is driving strong demand for hops with new and interesting flavours. Aroma hops usually have a lower alpha acid content compared with bitter varieties. The essential oil profiles of these varieties mean that the hop imparts more aromas and flavours to the beer.

Flavour hops is a new term being used to describe certain varieties that are similar in many respects to aroma hops, but are known to deliver a particularly bold flavour.

Hop producing companies and government agencies around the world have identified the opportunity for new aroma and flavour hops to be developed through investment in plant breeding programs. Such programs have led to some very successful varieties protected by patent, trademark or plant variety rights (PVR).

The American variety Citra® and New Zealand variety Motueka® are examples of varieties privately bred and selected for their aroma properties. The Cascade variety is one of the world’s most widely produced aroma hops, which resulted from a public breeding program run by the United States Department of Agriculture.

Here are some questions people often ask:

What is the difference between bittering hops and aroma hops? The alpha acids of Aroma hops are usually lower, around 5 percent and contribute a more desirable aroma and flavor to the beer. Bittering hops, also known as kettle hops, are added at the start of the boil and boiled for about an hour. Aroma hops are added towards the end of the boil and are typically boiled for 15 minutes or less.

How do you increase hop aroma? You can increase aroma by adding aroma extract. An easy way to make an aroma extract is to boil a small volume of wort and then steep some hops in it after you shut off the heat. You can then quickly cool your hop oil extract and add it to your beer. One method is to use a coffee plunger.

Do bittering hops add flavor? The same hop variety might be used for bittering, flavor and aroma. Not all beers will have 3 hop additions; some may have only one, some may have up to 5 or 6 additions. All beers do have at least one hop addition for bitterness, to balance the sweetness of the malt.

How do hops flavor beer? The plant part used in brewing beer is the hop flower, a delicate, pale green, papery cone full of perishable resins. They give a beer bitterness when used early in the brewing process, and aroma when added at the end. As a bonus, hops are a preservative, and extend the life of beer.

What do hops add to beer flavor? Hops add bitterness, flavor, and aroma to beer. They are the balancing agent to sugary sweet backbone that the malt provides. Specifically, hops have natural resins and essential oils that provide their uniquely identifiable flavor and aroma.

What does hops taste like in beer? Hops are the spice of beer. They provide bitterness to balance the sweetness of the malt, as well as flavors and aromas ranging from citrus and pine to earthy and spicy.

Why do hops beers sometimes taste like grapefruit? Lots of beer makers stick to various citrusy hops instead of actually adding grapefruit; Columbus, for example, especially gives off strong grapefruit flavor and aroma. Some brewers actually add real grapefruit puree, which contributes a touch of tart, citrus flavor to a variety of fruit beers, ciders, meads and other fermented beverages.

Are there beers without hops? There are beer styles which don’t use hops, for example gruit beer and spruce beer.

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Hops Origins and Species

Hop Types

Where do hops come from?

Hops are a member of the Cannabaceae family. The main commercial hop (Humulus lupulus) originates from the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and is one of three species in the genus Humulus. The lesser known species Humulus japonicas and H. yunnanensis are not cultivated commercially, although the former is sometimes grown as a garden screening plant. Little is known about the species H. yunnanesis except that it grows at high elevation and the low latitude of 25°N in parts of China. This species could be of interest to plant breeders in the future for developing varieties that might grow productively over a wider range of latitudes.

The species Humulus lupulus encompasses five known varieties: 1. Neomexicanus, 2. Lupuloides and 3. Pubescens, which are all native to various parts of North America, and 4. H. lupulus var. cordifolius which originates from Eastern Asia. The fifth variety, H.lupulus var. lupulus, originates from Europe and West Asia and represents most of the commercial hops grown worldwide.

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A Very Brief History of Hop Cultivation

History of Hops Cultivation

A Very Brief History of Hop Cultivation

Hop cultivation for use in brewing beer, originated in the Northern Hemisphere and is reported to go back to the mid 700s AD in the Hallertau region of Germany. In England, commercial scale production did not occur until the early 16th century. Although European hops were introduced into North America around 1629, they were not grown there on a commercial scale until the early 1800s (Neve 1991). According to Pearce (1976), after several failed attempts to ship live plants to Australia from the UK soon after colonisation, the first successful plants were produced from seed in New South Wales in 1803. These early plants did not impress, probably because the open‐pollinated seeds were highly variable in character and the growing locations’ suitability, in terms of soil, water and climate, were questionable.

A former convict, James Squires, did manage to produce hops at Kissing Point on Sydney’s Parramatta River in the early 1800s. Squires is said to have selected one or more successful hop plants from the imported seed progeny and vegetatively propagated from these to establish a successful five‐acre hop yard (Pearce 1976). Squires was also credited with establishing Australia’s first brewery on the same site in Sydney.

The year 1822 marks the earliest confirmed record of vegetative plant material being brought successfully to Australia from England. These plants were established in Tasmania by emigrant and experienced hop grower William Shoobridge. By the 1840s, the hop industry in Tasmania was well established around the Derwent River valley.

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Hop Botany

Hops Plant Botany

Hop Botany

The hop plant consists of a crown of rhizomes below ground, annual climbing bines above ground, and flowers that are harvested as green cones.

The Hop Rhizome Crown

The rhizome is the perennial storage organ of the plant. It feeds the growth of the productive canopy and ensures the plant’s survival from one season to the next. Mature crowns typically have some very deep penetrating roots and a shallow feeder root system. Hop plants can remain productive for many years.

A rhizome is essentially an underground stem with buds and roots. As the hop crown matures and develops, some of the underground stems (rhizomes) can be harvested and used as a source of clonal propagation material.

Read more about Hop Cones.